Traditionally, Good Friday is the day when you sow peas in your garden. I don’t know for sure why this is but I imagine it is so that the soil is warm enough for the peas to germinate and the full Moon is an optimum time for sowing seeds. Indeed, many people make a point of sowing all their seeds (and harvesting their crop) according to the Moon. Some even go as far as sowing at nighttime to be under the Moon!
Anyway, back to peas. When you sow your peas, you should also be considering supporting the plants. There are a few varieties which are advertised as self-supporting. These still only work up to a point. They get very messy. So, generally, peas need support.
The way gardeners always supported pea plants was by using ‘pea sticks ‘which were twiggy cuttings, traditionally from hazel, although any wood would do. Nowadays, not all of us have this sort of material available and we have to use more manufactured supports.
Bamboo canes work very well, either on every group of plants or at the end of rows with netting hang between them so that the pea plants grow up the netting. However, for a really desorative look which is also very practical, Harold Horticulture produce Pea and Bean Hoops and Cross Supports.
These are the sturdiest supports you can buy. They are made of heavy duty galvanised steel and will last for many seasons, so although the investment may seem heavy initially, over the years you will actually save money by not having to replace your supoports.
You will still need to use pea and bean netting with your supports and this is also available through Harold Horticulture although you can buy netting at almost any garden shop. The frame stands 1 m (3 ft) high and there is 30 cm between the legs of each hoop, so it is just right for two rows of peas. You can get it in three lengths, so you buy the one to suit you.
Usually, I plant my pea plants over Easter, but with the weather being as cold as it has been, my seeds were planted late, so they are not even germinated yet, let alone ready to go out. However, to follow tradition, I shall sow a row of peas outside on Good Friday (assuming the weather is clement!).
What a difference a couple of days sunshine and warmer nights makes. My rhubarb has now poked its head out of the ground and it is time to force it.
Forcing rhubarb is a very old way of making it grow faster so that you get an earlier crop. It means the sticks are thinner and more tender. You can use almost anything to cover the rhubarb crowns as long as it excludes the light, a bucket does very well. However, I feel that if you are doing this, you may as well make it attractive.
To this end, I would recommend rhubarb forcers which look like those the Victorians used.
They are bell shaped and traditionally made of terrcotta. However, you can now get some made of plastic.
The plastic rhubarb forcers are much lighter and therefore easier to move around but it also means that they are more prone to be blown about should you have heavy winds.
People often think that rhubarb is a very limited fruit. Well, actually it is a vegetable. This is because you eat the stem, not the fruit. It is easy to grow and can be harvested and although it is most useful as a dessert, It can be used as an accompaniment to a number of meat dishes. I like mine coked with a little ginger, this seems to take some of the sharpness away and you need to add less sugar. However you eat it, its delicious and a very good provider of fibre as well as vitamins.
Brassica is the family name for cabbages. It also includes a number of other vegetables, most of which are easily identifiable as belonging to the same family- Brussel sprouts, cabbages (of all types) calabrese, broccoli, cauliflower, kale, Chinese cabbages. It also includes swedes, turnips, radishes and kohlrabi. If you know which family or genus a vegetable belongs to, then you will know what it’s nutrient requirements are and where to plant them in your crop rotation.
Anyway, today I started to sow my seed for cabbages and calabrese. I am not overly fond of cabbage, although, oddly enough , I like Brussel sprouts. So I only grow a few cabbages and then only of certain types. The varieties of cabbage I sowed today are
They are both F1 Hybrids. I sowed both these 3 or 4 seeds in 3″ pots. When they have germinated and developed a bit, I will prick them out into separate 3 inch pots after which I will plant in my vegetables patch. The frosts should, by then, be passed. Most cabbages will stand up to bad weather, but germination is much better when you have some warmth and you will get earlier cabbages by sowing indoors.
Red Jewel, as the name suggests is a red cabbage. It has good storage properties and pickles very well. I like to cook it with apples, although it equally good cooked alone.
Brigadier is one which will give you a giant cabbage with heads up to 14lb (6.5kg). It is very tasty eaten raw or cooked. It has a high sugar and vitamin C content. It is Fusarium resistant. All round a good cabbage to grow and eat.
The seed catalogue cannot make up its mind whether it is Broccoli or Calabrese. The seed catalogue says broccoli and the seed packet says calabrese. Anyway, they are the same plant. The only difference is whether it matures in summer (calabrese) or winter (broccoli). This seed was sowed much the same way as I sowed my cabbage.
As I have said before, I enjoy the process of sowing and pricking out. If you do not or if you do not have the time (or patience),all these seeds can be sown in rows 2 ft (60cm) apart. When they have grown and look crowded, they should be thinned out until they are 6ins (15cm) apart. Then just let them grow and harvest when ready.
Today, I sowed Peas. Unfortunately I do not yet have this year’s vegetable seed order, so my pea seed is old. (Sow before 2006). This is quite old and may well not be viable. If it does not germinate, I shall sow again with new seed. However, it’s worth a try.
This year I have sowed three varieties – Endeavour and Balmoral both of which I have grown in the past with good results and Canoe which I have not grown before. If it germinates, it will be interesting to see the results.
I sowed all the peas in 3 inch pots, 3 seeds per pot. I would usually sow them 2 seeds to the pot but as I expect the germination to be lowered, I have added 1 seed per pot. When they are large enough, I will plant them out in rows 1 foot apart. I will plant them so that the pots touch each other. This will give the right spacing.
I also sowed Lettuce, Ultimate mixed seed in a 3inch pot. This is a mixture of red lettuces which I like because they add colour to a salad plate. They also taste delicious.
Morning Glory was the last seeds I sowed today. This was a mixture of colours and are a useful climber. The seeds germinate better if they are soaked overnight in warm water. This softens the hard outer shell. I then sowed them 2 seeds in 3 inch pots.
The weather is good today again. It feels like spring has finally arrived. I know it hasn’t – its forecast to get cold again tomorrow. However, whilst the weather is clement, I have planted my seed potatoes.
You actually treat them the same until it is time to harvest them. Early potatoes are harvested as soon as they start to flower and should be eaten immediately. Main Crop Potatoes are left until after they have finished flowering and then they can be stored for use during the winter.
I put my seed potatoes to ‘chit’ six weeks ago. That means to produce shoots. They were actually ready to plant a week ago – the weather wasn’t ready for them. Potatoes should be planted in rows 2 ft apart with 18 ins between the tubers. This gives room to ‘mound them up’ when necessary. It also gives room for the seed potatoes to grow a good network of roots and new tubers.If you do not have enough room to plant your potatoes 2 ft apart, they can be grown a bit closer, but your crop will be reduced. In this case, plant your tubers deep – 9 ins .
The one thing you don’t want is for your tubers to come to the surface. This is one of the reasons for ‘mounding up’ – that simply means making a mound of soil over your row of potato shoots. If your tubers do come to the surface, the sun will make them turn green. Green potatoes are unpalatable and also slightly poisonous. Not what you want! The other reasons for mounding up your potatoes is so that the frost does not get to the young shots and also it gives a larger area of soil exposed to the sun so it warms up quicker. As a useful side bar, it keeps the weeds down.
If, like me, you can’t wait to get back to gardening, or if you want an early crop of vegetables, then there are a number of vegetable seeds which can be sown in February.
Some of these can be sown straight in the ground, such as Broad Beans, Cabbage, Cauliflower, Calabrese, Brussel Sprouts, Carrots, Leeks, Radish, Beetroot and Lettuce. Some need gentle heat – Greenhouse Tomatoes, Sweet Peppers (Capsicums) Aubergine, Cucumber and sprouting seeds among them.
When you are buying your seeds to sow at this time of year(Or any time, come to that) look carefully at the variety and make sure that it is suited to the purpose. For example, there is no use sowing an Autumn Cauliflower at this time of year, it simply won’t germinate.
The seeds which need heat can be germinated on the kitchen window sill if you want. Just make sure you are going to be able to plant them out before they get too ‘leggy’. All plants grow towards the light and if you sow seeds indoors, they will reach for the sky. If they are left indoors for too long, they will get tall and weak – this is called ‘leggy’.
I sow most of my vegetables (except root vegetables) in pots in my greenhouse. This is because I live in open country and know I have a number of pests in my garden which would love me to sow them a ready meal. It also means I can check that cauliflowers are not ‘blind’ before planting them out.
If you are germinating your seeds on a window sill, even if it is warm during the day, the night temperature will drop at this time of year. To ensure good germination and growth, the best thing to do is to use an electric propogator. Propogators are basically plastic boxes with electric heaters in the base. T & M sell a propogator especially designed to go on your windowsill. It has a 15 watt element, so is quite inexpensive to run and has 7 seperate mini trays with lids, so you can raise more than one types of seed in it.
Electric Propogatoes are very useful in a cold greenhouse at this time of year, both for seed germination and for raising cuttings. A propogators will ensure the soil stays at an even temperature which promotes growth. Alternately, Thompson and Morgan sell a heated propgation mat which you lay oin your staging. It has a thermostat sensor so will never get to hot, or cold and is inexpensive to run.
If want to raise very early crops inside your cold greenhouse, you may want to consider heating it for the three months from January to March. You should begin by double lining your greenhouse walls with pplastic, to give better insulation. If you have a large greenhouse, you may want to do this with part of it, to save heating bills. THen you put a heater in. YOu can use any type of heater you like, although gas heaters are not recommended because they are ubnsafe and also because they give off a great deal of water vapour. Thompson and Morgan sell an Electric Fan Heaterwhich is 1.2KW. This is particularly useful since you can use it in summer to keep the air circulating in your greenhouse and keep it cool. It also has a ‘frost watch’ setting so that it only works during the winter to keep your greenhouse frost free. This is useful if you are extending the season during late autumn and early winter.
Parsnips can be quite tricky to germinate. They will only germinate from fresh seed – no good trying to sow last years excess seed. They also need heat and damp. You can germinate them at this time of year by putting them on damp blotting paper (or kitchen roll). Put them in a plastic bag and then put them in the airing cupboard. Don’t forget them, though – they will go mouldy. When they have germinated, sow them normally.
It’s no good sowing any seed into ground that is frozen. This year has been unreasonably cold and at the moment, my ground is frozen solid However, you can expect a thaw anytime soon and when it comes – go for it. If you are concerned, sow half your seed and keep half back for a later sowing, that way should you have trouble with germination, you can always try again.
Sowing under cover will also help your germination. When you have sown your seed, cover the ground with horticultural fleece. This will help keep the warmth in, keep the predators (such as birds) off and allow the rain through.
If your garden is small, or even if you have no garden, you can still grow potatoes. In fact if you grow them under cover you can harvest your first potatoes up to a month early (or even at Christmas).
You start off either with a bin (an old dustbin is great) or a large bag (I find the bags compost come in is great- turn them inside out so they are just black and look nice.) If you are using a bin, put crocks in the bottom for drainage. A hole or two wouldn’t go amiss. If you are using bags, make a few holes at the bottom for drainage.
Place 3 -4 ins of soil or compost in the bottom of your container. Spread out you seed potatoes on top of the soil. (5-6 is more then enough in both a dustbin or compost bag. This will not give you huge potatoes but will give you a decent harvest of medium sized potatoes. Next put 3-4 ins of soil or compost on top of you seed potatoes.
When you see green shoots from your seeds, then cover then with another 6ins of soil or compost. Repeat this process 4 or 5 times or until the bag or bin is three quarters full. Always leave the top of the bag open to the elements.
If you are growing the potatoes under cover, then you will need to water them regularly. Otherwise only water in dry weather.Be careful not to overwater – your potatoes will rot and smell nasty.
Your potatoes will grow normally as though you are growing them in your garden. Just leave them to do their thing. For early potatoes, you harvest when the flowers form and use the potatoes immediately. This will be in June to July for first early potatoes and in July – September for Second Earlies. For Maincrop Potatoes You leave them until after the flowering period is finished. Then harvest. This will be in September to October. Really, though, this method is best used for Early Potatoes.
To Harvest your potatoes, you simply empty your bin or bag. It is as easy as that. You get good potatoes with very little problem from any pests or diseases.
Potatoes take a little bit of work to grow in your garden but are worth it for the taste. If you have a small garden, then it is hardly worth growing maincrop varieties since they are so cheap to buy and they do take up a lot of room. There are really only four processes which you need to go through to grow potatoes successfully and once you know these, it becomes easy.
There are a large number of varieties of potatoes, each one performing different functions. If you use most of your potatoes for boiling, then you may want a different variety than if you use them mainly for chips. Some varieties perform a number of functions. So before buying seed potatoes, look caregfully at what they are best for. In addition to their uses, some seed potatoes are better at repelling pests and diseases than others. If you are growing potatoes for the first time, you will not know what pests and diseases are in your garden (if any) so err on the safe side. Although you can grow potatoes by planting any potato in your garden. It is always better to use seed potatoes because these have been specially treated and are guaranteed to be free from disease.
Apart from the various varieties, there are also also diferent types of potatoes which indicate when they are planted – and harvested. The packs will indicate this very clearly. Early varieties are dug and eaten straight away whilst Maincrop varieties are harvested in autumn and can be stored for winter use.. Early varieties are also divided into first early and second early types. Further indicating the time for planting.
The first thing you need to do after buying your seed opotatoes is to ‘chit’ them. This means you lay them out in a frost free place to sprout. Eggs boxes are adeal for this. However, you can use any container for this (I often use seed trays if I don’t have egg boxes available. You only want a few sprouts on each potato so if you have more than two, rub the smaller ones out. This avoids to much competition and a large number of smaller, inferior tubers. The sprouts should be green and strong. Keep the potatoes in a cool, light place. Never put them in the airing cupboard or other warm dark places. The sprouts will become light coloured and long and weak.
Once you have your sprouted potatoes, it is time to plant them. Potatoes like water-retentive soil with planty of organic matter for best results. If you do not have enough well rotted compost or manure for your whole plot, then dig the planting furrows deep and put a layer of compost in the bottom. Do not lime your potatoe plot as potatoes prefer an acid soil.
Planting time for potatoes depends upon where you live and the method you are using. The earliest crops can be grown under black polythene in late winter. This is an ideal deep bed method. Plant the early varieties in early to mid spring. You plant these in rows 2 ft apart with the tubers 12 ins aprt and about 6 ins deep. Maincrop potatoes are planted at the same time but the rows are spaced 2ft 6ins apart and the tubers are 15ins apart.
If the shoots appear before the frosts are over, cover them with soil to protect them from frosts. When the shoots are 6- 8ins tall spread a handful of blood, fish and bonemeal along each row and earth up by putting the earth between the rows over the shots, leaving a fraction of an inch showing. You can repeat this process once of twice more. This is very god for controlling weeds and it also ensures the tubers do not push up into the light. If tubers do push up, then cover them with soil. If tubers see light they turn green and become poisonous.
Early potatoes are harvested when they flower. Take only what you need immediately, leaving the rest to grow on. Maincrop varieities are harvested in mid autumn. Cut the foliage back and put it on the compost. However, if there is any sign od disease in the foliage, burn it.
Potatoes are afected by eelworms, wireworms, potato blight, scab and a number of other diseases. These are all either avoidable by buying the right tubers or are curable.
There is nothing quite like the satisfaction of eating your Christmas dinner and knowing that earlier that morning the vegetables had been growing in your garden. If you have room to raise chickens or turkeys, you can even raise your own meat!
It is very easy to grow a wide variety of vegetables which can be harvested over the winter. Certainly, Brussel Sprouts, the traditional Christmas vegetable, are one of the easiest and most rewarding. Sow the seed and sit back and wait. Harvest your sprouts from the bottom up and when you have run out of sprouts, the tops can be used for Spring greens.
Apart from Brussel Sprouts, you can also harvest Kale, Cauliflower, Carrots and Parsnips at Christmas. (If you have planned ahead, you will also have home grown Peas and Beans in your freezer. What more can you want? Well, potatoes of course. You will already have these stored.
It is easy to store potatoes. When you harvest your old potatoes, then make sure they have no blemishes and are perfectly dry, then just put them in a dark sack or bag. They need to be stored away from light and heat, although they do not want to be frozen. They will last months like that. New potatoes are treated slightly differently. These are stored iin dry compost. Again, they need to be kept cool but not frozen.
If potatoes see light when they are growing or even after they have been harvested, they go green and green potatoes are poisonous. They will not kill you but they could give you a nasty stomach ache. If they are stored too warm, they will sprout and go soft. Not what you want in potatoes.
If for some reason, you want to harvest your root vegetables early, then they can be stored in a cool, dark place in sand or dry peat. Make sure they are not damaged in any way before storing them. They must be dry or rot will set in and any damage will rapidly spread throughout the crop. Check all your stored vegetables from time to time to ensure they are not being attacked by any pests or diseases.
Peas are almost every child’s favourite vegetable, with good reason. Together with sweet corn they are among the sweetest tasting of all vegetables, and when grown in your garden they taste even sweeter. I always eat my first pod of peas uncooked, just to savour the flavour.
Although there have always been a wide range of varieties in peas, this year has seen two new ideas in Thompson and Morgans seed catalogue. The first is a tall variety (6 ft tall).
It has mauve flowers so will look decorative as well as providing peas. Picked and used in stir-fries or just plain steamed, mangetout peas straight from the garden are much sweeter than any of those brought from shops. This is because, like sweet corn the sugar starts to turn to starch as soon as the pods are picked. You should pick mangetout peas very early, before the peas start to swell.
Mushy Peas have suddenly become fashionable again, probably due to celebrity chef’s using them. These peas are stored by drying them after you have harvested them. When you want to use them, you just soak them overnight, then boil them with a little salt and sugar.
Most pea varieties are between 18 ins(4cm) and 3 ft (90cm) tall. They need support, although some varieties are advertised as self supporting if grown in blocks. I do not find this very satisfactory as they become unkempt and difficult to harvest. Peas grow best if they are kept weeded. You also have to bear in mind that small rodents and birds love peas. Net tunnels will solve the problem.
When sowing peas, they should be sown in rows with two peas sown every 6 ins. In fact, because peas are so beloved of small rodents, I sow them 3 seeds in 3″ pots and plant them out in rows with the pot contents touching each other. I just dig a small trench and plant the peas in them. I also put in twigs as supports at the same time.
You should try to sow peas in succession so that you never have too many at one time. You can start sowing in March (February under cover) until May or even June. (I actually sowed some in the middle of July last year and although they were not wonderful, I did get some peas. ). If you do have more peas then you can use at one time, then they freeze very well, losing none of their flavour in the process. Try to freeze them as soon as possible after you have harvested them.
Like all vegetables, peas are very good for you. Mangetout peas are high in potassium and all peas are a good source of Vitamins A , B1, C and folic acid. Peas also help remove cholesterol as they contain soluble fibre.